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Nepal History

NepalNepal has been a Kingdom for over 1500 years from now. The Newars are thought to have lived in the Nepal Valley since the 4th century AD, developing a Hindu-Buddhist culture. Cited below is a brief chronology of the important events that happened in Nepal.

Nepal: Chronology of Important Events
Period Description
ca. 563 B.C. Buddha born in Lumbini
ca. A.D.400-750 Licchavi kingdom in power in Kathmandu
1100-1484 Khasa Mall kings rule in western Nepal
1200-16 Arimalla, first monarch of the Malla Dynasty, rules in Kathmandu Valley.
1312 Khasa King Ripumalla leads raid in Kathmandu Valley
1345-46 Sultan Shams ud-din Ilyas of Bengal leads raid in Kathmandu Valley.
1382-95 Jayasthitimalla rules as king of united Malla kingdom in Kathmandu Valley.
1428-82 Yakshamalla reigns - height of united Malla kingdom.
1484 Malla kingdom divided; three kingdoms of Kathmandu, Bhadgaon, and Patan established.
1559 Gorkha kindgom established by Dravya Shah.
1606-33 Ram Shah of Gorkha reigns; Gorkha kindgom experiences first expansion.
1743 Prithvi Narayan Shah ascends to throne of Gorkha.
1768-90 Gorkha conquers Kathmandu and Patan, Bhadgaon, eastern Nepal, and western Nepal.
1775 Prithvi Narayan Shah dies, first king of united Nepal.
1814-1816 The Anglo-Nepalese War and the resulting Treaty of Sagauli reduces the territory of Nepal.
1846 Jang Bahadur Rana takes over as prime minister and establishes hereditary Rana rule.
1946 The Nepali Congress Party is founded.
1947 The United States establishes diplomatic relations with Nepal.
1948
  • The country's first constitution, the Government of Nepal Act, is promulgated;
  • Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana resigns in the wake of opposition to the new constitution from conservative Ranas;
  • Mohan Shamsher becomes prime minister; constitution is suspended.
1951
  • Mohan Shamsher capitulates;
  • King Tribhuvan is restored to the throne
1952
  • Koirala resigns;
  • King assumes direct rule.
1953 Koirala is recalled as prime minister.
1955
  • King Tribhuvan dies and is succeeded by Mahendra;
  • Nepal joins the United Nations;
  • National Police Force is formed;
  • Koirala resigns; Mahendra takes over direct control.
1956
  • Tanka Prasad Acharya is named prime minister;
  • Border treaty with China concluded;
1957
  • Acharya resigns;
  • K.I. Singh becomes prime minister for a few months.
1958
  • USSR opens an embassy at Kathmandu;
  • Subarna Shamsher is named new prime minister.
1959
  • United States opens an embassy at Kathmandu;
  • New constitution is promulgated, superseding Constitution of 1951;
  • First general elections are held;
  • Nepal Congress Party wins absolute majority;
  • Tribhuvan University founded;
1960
  • B.P. Koirala heads first popular government;
  • Koirala's policies are opposed by the king, and Koirala is abruptly dismissed;
  • All political parties are banned; the king takes over direct control of government;
  • Treaty of Peace and Friendship with China is concluded.
1961
  • Kind proclaims guided democracy;
  • Boundary treaty with China renewed.
1962
  • New constitution, third since 1951, establishes panchayat form of government;
  • Land Reorganization Act and Mulki Ain, new legal code, are promulgated;
  • Anti-India riots erupt in Kathmandu over Indian aid to dissidents.
1963
  • Emergency is ended; Panchayat elections begin;
  • National Guidance Council is formed;
  • Tulsi Giri is named prime minister;
1965
  • Local government reorganized;
  • Giri resigns;
  • Surya Bahadur Thapa is appointed prime minister
1969
  • Thapa yields office to Kirti Nidhi Bista;
  • Indian military mission withdrawn.
1970
  • Bista resigns;
  • Raj Bhandari becomes interim prime minister.
1971
  • Bista is recalled as prime minister;
  • New trade and transit treaty negotiated with India.
1972
  • Mahedra dies and is succeeded by King Birendra;
  • Development regions are established under National Development Council.
1973
  • Nagendra Prasad Rijal is named prime minister;
  • Singha Durbar, the seat of government, burns down.
1975
  • Rijal resigns;
  • Tulsi Giri is appointed prime minister;
  • King Birendra is crowned;
  • "Go to the Village" campaign is launched.
1976
  • B.P. Koirala returns from India and is arrested;
  • Treaty with India expires and is not renewed.
1977
  • Tulsi Giri resigns as prime minister in the wake of corruption charges;
  • Former prime minister Kirti Nidhi Bista is reinstated as prime minister.
1979
  • Following nationwide demonstrations by students, Bista is replaced as prime minister by Surya Bahadur Thapa;
  • King announces referendum on the panchayat form of government.
1980 In national referendum people vote for continuance of the panchayat form of government and against the reintroduction of political parties.
1982 B.P. Koirala, Nepali Congress Party leader dies.
1983 Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa is defeated in the Rastriya Panchayat and is replaced by Lokendra Bahadur Chand.
1986
  • Second elections to Rastriya Panchayat held;
  • Marich Man Singh Shrestha becomes prime minister.
1989 Failure to renegotiate trade and transit treaties with India disrupts economy.
1990
  • Demonstrations for the restoration of democracy;
  • Panchayat system is dissolved;
  • Interim government made up of various parties and king's representatives formed;
  • New constitution promulgated.
1991
  • Elections to Parliament held;
  • Nepali Congress wins a narrow majority;
  • G.P. Koirala becomes prime minister.President of Nepali Congress and interim prime minister, K.P. Bhattarai, defeated in the polls by the leader of CPN-UML, Madan Bhandari.
1992
  • Local elections held;
  • Nepali Congress wins a majority of the seats.
1993
  • Madan Bhandari killed in a mysterious car crash. Violent demonstrations by communists to overthrow Koirala's government;
  • Devastating floods kill hundreds.
1994
  • Prime minister Koirala resigns and calls for new elections afte losing a parliamentary vote due to the abstention of 36 members of his own party. New elections in November results in a hung parliament;
  • CPN-UML, which emerged as the single largest party, formes a minority government.
1995 The minority goverment of CPN-UML loses power in a parliamentary vote of no-confidence. A coalition government of Nepali Congress, RPP and Sadhvabana is formed.
1997 The NC-RPP coalition government loses power resulting in a UML-RPP coalition. This government itself loses power six months later to another NC-RPP coalition. Ganesh Man Singh, who led the 1990 democracy movement dies.
1999 The third general elections after restoration of democracy results in Nepali Congress coming back to power with an absolute majority in the House. Krishna P. Bhattarai becomes Prime Minister for the second time.
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